As warmer days begin to nudge out the cold, grey, wet ones, it's only natural we start filling our ASOS baskets with bikinis, booking summer holidays, and investing in sun loungers for the garden. But (not to be a Debbie Downer), it's also the time we should be checking in on our SPF collection, binning any bottles that have passed their best before, and investing in some impressive new sun-protection technology .
With every generation comes a greater understanding of the damaging (and potentially dangerous) effects of the sun, and the importance of applying SPF to exposed areas of skin ( face and body), daily. “The skin is our largest and most visible organ and is dramatically affected by environmental factors such as UV radiation,” confirms consultant dermatologist Dr Maryam Zamani. “Ultraviolet radiation causes inflammation, physical changes to the skin, impaired wound healing, and most importantly, DNA damage that can lead to skin cancer . UV exposure accounts for the majority of visible signs of ageing- wrinkles, fine lines, pigmentation, and loss of skin elasticity.”
When and how often should I apply it?
Most skin experts agree you should reach for a broad-spectrum sunscreen (one that offers protection against both UVA and UVB rays), with an SPF30 or above. “Chemical sunscreens need to be applied at least twenty minutes before going outdoors,” says consultant dermatologist and author of The Skincare Bible, Dr Anjali Mahto. “Mineral sunscreens containing titanium dioxide and zinc oxide work as soon as they are applied.” She goes on to advise reapplication every ninety minutes to get the stated protection factor on the bottle, plus reapplying after swimming and sweating.
“I often get asked if it is necessary to wear sunscreen every day , including the winter months,” she adds. “It is true that there is less UVB radiation in the winter in the UK, the main ray that can cause burning. However, as many skin cancers develop due to cumulative UV exposure, it’s worthwhile getting into the habit of wearing sunscreen on exposed sites daily.”
How much should I apply?
Sunscreen needs to be used on all areas not covered by clothing, and as a rough guide, about a teaspoon per body area (one teaspoon for your face, head, and neck, one for each arm, one for each leg, one for your chest and abdomen and one for your back and the back of the neck). “About one-shot-glass-full should be about right for an average-sized adult,” says Mahto. “Don’t forget your ears and the tops of your feet - these are commonly missed sites.”
What’s the difference between chemical and mineral sunscreens?
Chemical sunscreens work by converting UV light energy into heat energy and absorbing it, while mineral sun creams (AKA physical) use titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, and iron oxide to reflect rays away from the skin. Historically, chemical formulas have been preferred for their easily-absorbed, lightweight textures. Mineral formulas, however, were found to be less irritating for people with sensitive skin prone to acne or eczema (despite the chalky residue they tended to leave behind). Luckily, SPF technology has advanced and formulations improved, meaning many mineral SPFs are now rivalling their chemical counterparts when it comes to their invisible filters (case in point: Dr Sam and Green People, below).
What’s all this buzz about 'reef safe' formulas?
Typically, chemical formulas use filters such as oxybenzone and octinoxate to absorb UV rays. But environmental studies suggest these two chemical filters (among others) could be harmful to marine life and coral reefs. Holland & Barrett is the first retailer to ban chemical sunscreen in their stores, and suncare brands are now busy adding “reef safe” formulas to their collections. If you feel passionate about the subject, do your own research and study ingredient lists independently – some sun creams are labelled 'reef-friendly' while still containing chemical filters that (although not the main two chemical culprits) could still be detrimental to marine life.
So, which sunscreen is best?
The brainchild of Dr. Andrew Birnie, a consultant dermatologist and skin cancer surgeon who wanted to provide premium sunscreen at affordable prices. How? By reducing profit margins (including his financial gain) and unnecessary marketing costs. Altruist uses both physical and chemical filters to provide optimum protection, including a “micronized” filter called Tinosorb A2B, which reflects and scatters UV rays. We’re stocking up.
The ultra-chic self-tan brand has just launched a range of three SPF 50+ products, a spray and face cream and this lightweight water-resistant beauty, which lives up to its promise of being non-greasy, making it our pick for a great everyday lotion that won't leave you white (it's chemical rather than mineral) or sticky. It's fragrance-free too, for those of us who don't want to smell of the beach when we're just going to work or have anything compete with our favourite perfume.
This water-resistant sunscreen proves that 100 per cent mineral formulas have come a looong way since the chalky days. With no white residue or stickiness, it uses zinc oxide and titanium oxide to protect against UVA and UVB rays, combined with skin nourishers shea butter, squalene, and aloe vera for a luxe skin finish you’d expect from a body lotion. It feels as delicious as your favourite body lotion - a real treat.
This was our editor Victoria's emergency airside purchase in Boots on a recent trip abroad ("I wanted something cheap and unscented", she says) and it surpassed all expectations. A mixture of mineral and chemical filters, it dries instantly, comes in a part-recycled eco tube and is so easy to reapply in layers because there's no feeling of heaviness or stickiness and it's water-resistant too. "Perfect for all the family," she says.
This brand has been the beauty editor’s go-to for years thanks to its patented lamellar technology (lamellar gel structures anchor themselves to the skin’s layers, mimicking their natural structure). The brand’s newest offering comes in an easy-to-apply gel formula and promises to “supercharge” your tan with an active melanin-boosting ingredient. Boosted further by GSP (a powerful antioxidant derived from grape seed) for infrared protection, titanium dioxide for blue light protection, plus skin-nourishing algae extract, this one ticks a lot of boxes.
A lightweight, water-resistant spray that offers UVA and UVB protection, with the bonus of an enviable glowy-skin finish. The light, even mist saturates the skin really well, making rubbing in easy-peasy before it sinks in completely. Its “advanced transparent filtering system” promises to be invisible on all skin tones, with no sticky residue left behind, making it ideal for everyday wear.
A chemical sunscreen offering extremely high protection against UVA, UVB, and infrared light (with wavelengths longer than visible light). The brand’s patented filtering system actually makes the formulation stricter than European recommendations, so you know your skin’s in good hands this summer. It’s non-greasy, sinks in quickly, and is well suited to those prone to sun intolerance or prickly heat rash.
If your skin is on the reactive side (read: gets irritated easily) but can’t find The One in a mineral formulation, this high-protection, thermal-water-laced fluid could be your chemical compromise. With a lovely lightweight texture and water-resistant promise (although we would always recommend reapplying after a swim), it also boasts a potent blend of antioxidants that work against the damage caused by environmental aggressors such as pollution, blue light, and UV rays.
This sun cream may as well come with its own halo: a fragrance-free, broad-spectrum mineral formula containing 84% certified organic agricultural ingredients (including the likes of aloe vera, edelweiss, green tea, and beeswax). What it doesn’t include is any silicones, emulsifiers, or artificial fragrances, making it perfect for those with sensitive skin. And if this SPF wasn’t saintly enough already, the brand gives 20p to the Marine Conservation Society for every bottle sold. Nice.
A chemical sunscreen that smells like a tropical paradise (even if you’re in a tiny patch of sunshine on your garden patio). There’s a fragrance-free offering for those with sensitive skin, but both boast 70+% certified organic ingredients in a sweat and water-resistant formula. Trust us: the light mist action makes applying sun protection feel like a pamper session, not a chore.
Sunscreen texture is down to personal preference, but if you love the sensation of a dry oil (and love a tropical scent), this one’s for you. With nourishing coconut and argan oil, it leaves skin feeling silky (not greasy), and despite using chemical filters, it doesn’t contain the main “reef-damaging” culprits: oxybenzone or octinoxate.
A biphase formula that’s part oil, part water, in an easy-to-apply spray. The oil phase is made up of UV filters, emollients, and Vitamin E, while the water phase contains a mineral-rich water, responsible for reviving and hydrating the skin. Just remember to gently shake before you spray and you’ll get a velvety, non-greasy texture that’s a dream to top up throughout the day.
The brand that couldn’t keep its first fragrance free SPF 50+ in stock due to demand has delivered again. This time, with a deeply-hydrating formula infused with ethically sourced algae to help reinforce the skin barrier, plus broad-spectrum protection and a four-hour-water-resistant promise. Fragrance-free like its predecessor (you sensitive-skinned sunbathers are spoilt for choice this summer), there's no greasy residue, it sinks in quickly, and leaves skin looking hydrated and plump.