Egg freezing has been a fertility preservation option for women prior to cancer treatment for a long while, but since the Covid lockdowns there has been a surge in interest in egg freezing as restrictions made it it more difficult to move forward with that area of our lives. More women turned to egg freezing as insurance and in 2021 fertility clinic Waterstone Clinic, Cork reported a 100 per cent increase in people seeking treatment since the start of the pandemic.
More celebrities have opened up about their own egg-freezing experiences. Both Khloe and Kourtney Kardashian have shared theirs on YouTube show Lady Parts, with Kourtney explaining, she froze hers at 39, in case she wanted to add a fourth child to her brood.
Actress Jennifer Aniston, 53 this week reflected in Allure magazine on her unsuccessful rounds of IVF, saying that she wished someone had told her to freeze her eggs. "I would've given anything if someone had said to me, 'Freeze your eggs. Do yourself a favour.' You just don't think it. So here I am today. The ship has sailed," she said.
Reality star Amy Hart, 30, has also been vocal about her freezing her eggs, sharing her journey on social media. She has now fallen pregnant naturally and said that she plans to keep her frozen eggs or possibly even donate them. "It was never an issue with falling pregnant, it was more the longevity of my fertility," she told TV show Loose Women.
Even before the pandemic, egg freezing was on the rise. In 2017 data from the UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) indicated that the number of women freezing their eggs had tripled over a period of five years. Putting our eggs on ice is becoming become an increasingly popular way to give us a chance at motherhood when we’re in the position to start a family.
Technically known as vitrification, egg freezing involves the stimulation of the ovaries with certain medications in order to produce a surplus of eggs, which are then collected in a procedure during which a needle is inserted into the vagina. Eggs are then frozen in liquid nitrogen and can be legally stored for up to ten years in the UK (this can be extended for medical reasons such as cancer treatments and premature infertility). Once an egg is thawed, it can be fertilised by way of IVF, with the resulting embryo implanted into the womb.
So far, so seemingly straightforward; you might think that it was a handy bolt-on for women wishing to extend their fertility and plan for future motherhood while taking the edge off a ticking biological clock.
The reality, of course, isn’t always so simple. For starters, it’s not a given that it will work, and the expense involved means that egg-freezing is far from accessible for many women. Success rates are predicted to be lower than IVF, but with so many eggs yet to thaw, we can’t yet know for sure whether egg freezing constitutes a technological fertility revolution for women or a shot at motherhood that’s more likely to end in disappointment.
The success of egg freezing largely depends on the age at which you freeze them according to the HFEA.
Sally Cheshire, Chair of the HFEA says that "clinics have an ethical responsibility to be clear that egg freezing below the age of 35 offers women their best chance of creating their much longed-for family." She adds, "Currently, women using their own frozen eggs in treatment have a success rate of 18 percent (30 per cent with frozen donor eggs), which offers no guarantee of achieving a successful pregnancy and birth." The higher success rates for donor eggs compared to own eggs is to be expected, says the report as donors needed to "have healthy indications for fertility, such as BMI, age and lifestyle factors".
Three women about their real-life experiences of egg-freezing, from initial tests and clinic appointments to deciding whether it was indeed the right option for them…
Rhona, 35, is a dentist and founder of Chelsea Dental Clinic. She had 19 eggs frozen in 2021 year and is currently in a long-term relationship
"I was approaching 34, and my father, who is co-founder of the Fertility and Gynaecology Academy fertility clinic in London, was the person who encouraged me to think about freezing my eggs. I laughed it off at first but as the years rolled by I realised that despite having a partner who is amazing and supportive I’m not quite ready to have a family yet.
"I’m super career-orientated but I definitely want children, though not in the near future. I knew that the quality and quantity of my eggs would be decreasing as I got older so I wanted to safeguard my fertility and made an appointment with Dr Amin Gorgy at The Fertility and Gynaecology Academy.
"I thought about embryo freezing and my partner was happy to do this but I decided I wanted to do it alone and not put pressure on anyone else.
"At my first appointment with Dr Gorgy we talked through the process and he sent me for scans as well as blood tests to check my hormone levels. He told me that my egg reserve was good but that this was the perfect time to freeze my eggs because the success of the procedure is higher in your early 30s than in your late 30s, due to the quality and quantity of your eggs. My bloods revelaed that I was slightly low on a hormone called AMH (anti-mullerian hormone), which meant my fertility was declining a little.
"With this in mind, I decided to go ahead. To begin my egg-freezing journey, I’d be injecting myself with hormones designed to speed up the cycle process to harvest eggs, for two weeks starting from day two or three of my period. After two weeks, they’d collect eggs under sedation and freeze the good quality eggs.
"I had no issues injecting myself. I inject people all the time as a dentist so I wasn’t scared. Every two days I had tests in the clinic to monitor the size of my eggs as well as my bloods and hormones
"For the first 11 days of the process, I felt fine. Life went on as usual with work and exercise. On day 12 I felt tired and bloated - like PMS times two or three! They told me that on day 14 they’d be taking my eggs, that I’d need to take that day off work but would be able to return to work the day after. I’m a workaholic so this was music to my ears.
"It is a harrowing process, especially if you don’t have a high pain threshold, but freezing my eggs is definitely one of the best things I’ve done
"On the day of the egg harvesting, I was sedated, which pretty much knocked me out. I can’t remember any of it, but it took about 12 minutes to remove the eggs. When I woke up they told me they’d harvested 19 eggs. The optimum number of eggs is between 20 and 30 to maximise the chances of a successful pregnancy, so people often go through two or three cycles. I was lucky, all 19 were good. I was so excited at the prospect of 19 Rhonas being frozen!
"I was nauseous on the day but the next day felt well enough to go to the gym for a light session. In hindsight, that was a big mistake. The following day I felt horrendous and my stomach started to swell I looked three-months pregnant and felt really bloated with a bad headache.
"The doctor said this was due to over-stimulation of the ovaries; he described it as having PMS multiplied 19 times for each of the 19 eggs. He told me not to panic, but I felt so uncomfortable and I was feeling regretful, wondering if it was worth it. I hated the way I looked and the way I felt. I had to cancel a couple of days' work because I couldn’t cope. Because I had exercised I’d aggravated everything even more.
"I was instructed to drink three litres of water a day to clear my system. It was two or three weeks before my body started to feel normal again. After three weeks, I stopped craving chocolate and was able to exercise. Despite the long recovery process, I don’t regret my decision at all.
"It is a bit of a harrowing process, especially if you don’t have a high pain threshold, but despite this, freezing my eggs is definitely one of the best things I’ve done simply because I know I have the eggs in the freezer now and I can use them any time. The stigma needs to be taken away from egg freezing. People told me I was way too young, but I wanted to ensure I was doing something for me."
Egg freezing treatment at The Fertility and Gynaecology Academy starts from £4,500
Emma, 36, is a personal image consultant and marketing expert. She had 16 eggs frozen when we spoke to her before the pandemic and was single.
“I’d just come out of a four-year relationship at 31. It was the kind of relationship that everyone, including myself to be honest, had assumed would progress to marriage, kids and so on, but it wasn’t to be. We’re still great friends actually, but it just wasn’t right. When the relationship ended, my mum mentioned that I might want to look into egg freezing. It wasn’t until I ended a later relationship of 18 months (he was most definitely not the man for me) that I actually considered taking the plunge. I was 34, and after a long discussion with my mum, dad and sister, I put the feelers out.
"It was a colleague at work who had recently frozen her eggs that put me in touch with my brilliant gynaecologist, Mr Colin Davis. During my first appointment at his clinic, the whole process was explained with clarity and impartiality. I reached out to other women who’d done it and decided that while it was undoubtedly a hugely expensive process, I would treat it as a worthwhile insurance policy. Rather than the much-documented career-related reasons for embarking on egg freezing, the factor that most affected my decision was the way that my relationships had played out, and the fact that I didn’t want to rush finding the right partner, or settle in a bad relationship. I’ve seen friends start families in less-than-happy relationships, and I wasn’t prepared to go down that path.
"As for the process, I can’t deny that it was a little weird injecting myself in the stomach every day, and having a sharps bin in my bathroom took a bit of getting used to. The appointments were more disruptive than I’d anticipated too - I had to go along to the clinic almost every day before work prior to having my eggs harvested in order to look at my eggs via ultrasound. I won’t beat around the bush - it’s quite the wake-up call to have a “prong” inserted every day before trotting off to the office, but it wasn’t a painful process- just a bit uncomfortable.
"As for the egg harvesting procedure itself, it took about 15 minutes. I was heavily sedated throughout, and the recovery period was quick- I only took one day off work. My boss was incredibly flexible and understanding.
I think that in time it will become normalised and women will start looking into it at a younger age.
I’ve frozen 16 eggs, and In total it’s cost me £7,000. I’m lucky to be in the financial position to be able to afford it, but given that I could have easily frittered the cash away on a luxury holiday, handbag or a car, I see it as a valuable investment in my future. The best-case scenario is that I won’t need the eggs I’ve frozen, but I have them stored until I’m at least 44, and I can extend it after that if I wish.
"I did consider egg donation initially alongside freezing, but I decided against it in the end. You can never be sure of individual egg quality, and if I gave eggs away yet didn’t have any children myself that would be a difficult emotional position to be in. You have to decide whether you want to donate before your eggs are retrieved, and if you’re not successful yourself, it’s a lot to put your mind and body through. 16 eggs might seem like as lot, but there are no guarantees, even though technology is improving all the time. I’ve decided to give any eggs that aren’t used to medical research when the time comes.
"I know that the ‘live birth stats’ look bleak, but the general reporting on egg-freezing in the media really frustrates me- it’s a new option for women and couples, and there aren’t the stats to accurately reflect how it’s working yet. You can’t take the numbers at face value at the moment, as currently all the eggs are in the freezer, so to speak! I think that in time it will become normalised and women will start looking into it at a younger age.
"I’m happy that I went for it at 34 when I was still in a peak period of my fertility- success rates are likely to be better the younger you are, and I think that it can give many women peace of mind, while most would hope they’d conceive naturally and not need to use them. It’s such a personal decision, and I was very lucky to have the means and incredible support from family and friends to see it through. I’m very open about my experience and decision, and I’ll chat to any woman who’s thinking about it who wants to talk to someone who’s been there. I absolutely don’t agree with the idea of putting pressure on women to freeze their eggs, but it’s another modern choice that’s opened up to us, and I think it’s important that it’s not a taboo topic.”
Jenny, 29, is an editor at a major publishing house. A conversation with a friend prompted her to discuss egg freezing with her partner. After several clinic appointments, they decided against egg freezing.
“I’m in a very happy relationship of three years. Although I live with my boyfriend, we’re not married yet and we’re definitely not ready to swap our carefree life of zero responsibilities (minus making it to work every day) for a life of parenthood for at least four or five more years.
"Saying that, I definitely want a family when the time is right, and I could never imagine myself not having kids. So, when my best friend told me over a bottle of prosecco that she’d spoken to a fertility expert who had told her she should be seriously considering freezing her eggs at 29, I felt nervous. Did that mean I should be considering freezing my eggs too?
"After talking it through with my boyfriend, I booked into a London egg clinic to see what it was all about. I knew it was expensive, so I chose the first clinic based on the fact that it offered egg donation programmes - this means you can freeze your eggs for free, but only if you also donate some of them to other women who can’t conceive.
"Before they could find out if I was eligible for egg donation, I had to go through a full medical history and have two tests done - a pelvic ultrasound which counts how many follicles you have to figure out your ovarian reserve (this doesn’t hurt, but isn’t particularly comfortable either) and a blood test to measure your AMH ( Anti-Mullerian Hormone) level.
"You have to score very highly on each test to be eligible for egg donation, and upon receiving my results I was told I wasn’t eligible - my results weren’t bad by any means, but they weren’t in the ‘excellent’ category that qualifies you for that particular programme. By that point though, I had already decided that egg donation wasn’t for me after finding out that a recent change in the law means that any child born from your donated eggs has the right to contact you once they turn 18 - something I wasn’t sure I could handle.
"Moving on from my egg donation ideas, my boyfriend and I then took a trip to another London egg clinic that claimed to have the highest success rates for egg freezing in the UK. After sitting in on one of their open days, I was then granted a free 15-minute consultancy session with one of their fertility doctors who explained how the process of egg freezing works in a nutshell. Intrigued to find out more, I then booked in for a full one-hour appointment (which cost a hefty £200) with another doctor, who promised to explain the process in detail.
"While the doctor was lovely and answered all of my questions, I left feeling spooked after his warnings of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (when the drugs you inject cause your ovaries to go into overdrive, resulting sometimes in hospitalization), extreme bloating, vomiting, infection - all possible risks and side effects of the egg freezing process. Pair that with his reluctant confession that it’s not uncommon for women to go through the entire procedure only to wake up and discover that none of her eggs was viable for freezing (that’s your savings down the drain then), and I wasn’t feeling as enthused about the whole thing.
"The £7k pricing breakdown I was then handed by the finance team as I left was the final nail in the coffin. I went home feeling deflated, but with my mind made up - egg freezing was probably not for me.
If it doesn’t happen naturally? I’ll cross that bridge when I come to it, knowing that there are tonnes of different ways to have a family these days
"A few weeks later, I was seeing my GP to get back onto my usual contraception (before having any of your fertility tests, you have to have been off your pill for at least three months for it to be accurate). I decided to ask him what he thought about egg freezing, after telling him my story - his advice? Leave it to nature. Yes, women’s fertility starts to decline after 30, he said, but only gradually (after 35 is when it starts to decline steeply).
"And while he didn’t explicitly state that he’s against them, he did gently remind me that egg-freezing clinics are, at the end of the day, there to make money. His advice was to just be sensible, and to think carefully about what I want for my future - if kids are definitely on the cards, I should make sure I’m striking the right balance between ‘enjoying my early 30s’ and choosing a time to conceive. He also reminded me that women should allow themselves at least a year to get pregnant for the first time, so if I think I might want a baby at 34/35, I should be thinking about coming off the Pill at 33. And if it doesn’t happen naturally? Well, I’ll cross that bridge when I come to it, knowing that there are tonnes of different ways to have a family these days. And that’s a decision I’m happy with.”
The pros and cons of having your eggs counted